The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a widely used scoring system for quantifying the level of consciousness following traumatic brain injury. It is used because it is simple, has a relatively high degree of reliability and correlates well with outcomes following severe brain injury. One of the components of the scale is the “verbal response,” which cannot be assessed when children are very young. A modified version of the scale—the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (PGCS)—was created for children too young to talk. According to a study published in 2005, using the PGCS for children under 2 years of age compared favorably to using the standard GCS for older kids.
Avid Pro Tools 11 Crack Mac Os X. It was especially accurate for babies and toddlers who needed acute intervention. The authors of this study (Holmes, MD, MPH, Palchak, MD, MacFarlane, MD, & Kuppermann, MD, MPH, 2009) investigated the accuracy of the pediatric scale by studying children with TBIs from infancy through 18 years. The children were divided into two groups: those 2 years and younger and those older than 2. The authors assigned the PGCS score to the younger group and the standard GCS to the older kids. The GCS is based on a 15-point scale for estimating and categorizing the outcomes of brain injury on the basis of overall social capability or dependence on others. Patients with scores of 3 to 8 are considered to have a severe brain injury. The following is a breakdown of the scale.
Mathematics Of Public Key Cryptography Steven Galbraith Pdf Free. The GCS defined When applying the GCS, the final score is determined by adding the values of E + V + M (eye opening score + verbal response score + motor response score). This number helps medical practitioners categorize the possible levels for survival, with a lower number indicating a more severe injury and a poorer prognosis. Following is a breakdown of the scoring: • mild brain injury —a score of 13 to 15 • moderate brain injury—a score of 9 to 12 (this usually suggests that there was a loss of consciousness greater than 30 minutes.) • severe brain injury is a score of 3 to 8 Eight is considered a critical score with 90 percent of patients in a coma at this level or below.
A coma is defined as: • not opening eyes • not obeying commands • not uttering understandable words. Motor response definitions When an individual scores below four points on motor response, the scale identifies a decorticate or decerebrate posture/response. Following are descriptions of those terms. Decorticate posture is an abnormal posturing that involves rigidity, flexion of the arms, clenched fists and extended legs. The arms are bent inward toward the body with the wrists and fingers bent and held on the chest. This type of posturing implies severe damage to the brain with immediate need for medical attention. What causes decorticate posture?